Manual Illustrations of the literature and religion of the Buddhists

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Continue Shopping Checkout. Reset Pincode. Submit a Review. Illustrations of the Literature and Religion of the Buddhists. JK Rowling. Home Illustrations of the Literature and Reli In this sense, the core beliefs and teachings of Buddhism as they are known and practiced in Vietnam also revolve around these concepts: The Four Noble Truths, the Eight-fold Path, karma, and reincarnations.

This part provides a brief introduction to these concepts in order to lay the context for the study.

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Karma refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intentions and actions of a person cause will affect his future outcomes effects. The introduction and absorption of Confucianism into Vietnam also took place over centuries. According to Nguyen , Confucianism was introduced to Vietnam during the Chinese domination from B. It was the Buddhist monks, the most learned men at the time, who not only spread their religious beliefs, but also taught Confucianist philosophy to the Vietnamese people seeking a civil servant post Nguyen, , p.

When Confucianism gained more followers in the eleventh century, Confucian scholars were said to have opposed Buddhism. Given such historical depth, Confucianism has become more about a way of life than a religion in the Vietnamese culture Nguyen, These core virtues are summarized in Table 2. Confucianism was not only about social order; it also laid the foundations for institutions of governance in Vietnam, namely the selection of imperial officials through competitive exams based on Confucian teachings. This aspect still rings true in contemporary Vietnamese culture.

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For example, the educational system, business practices, and even the law in Vietnam are often described as being heavily influenced by Confucianism Pham, ; Pham and Fry, ; Vuong and Tran, ; Vuong and Napier, The earliest appearance of Taoism or Daoism in Vietnam dated back to the second century when some Taoist monks from China sought to spread their ideas to the area that is now northern Vietnam Xu, Based on the classics Daodejing of Laozi and Huainaizi, the philosophical Taoism offered a worldview based on the natural approach to life.

The way of life in philosophical Taoism was largely aimed towards reaching the wuwei realm.

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The word wuwei means doing nothing in the sense of letting life flow naturally. Nature was the leitmotif of the Taoist philosophy and truly set Taoism apart from Confucianism Novak, Consequently, the image ideal of a person who retreats to the nature and free from the constricted life of Confucian rules is usually associated with Taoism. Religious Taoism, like Buddhism, does not have a core system of specific teachings.

Broadly speaking, its practices focus on the search for longevity and immortality, spiritual healing, magic, and divinations, which blended in with Vietnamese popular religious beliefs Tran, , p. Unlike in China, Taoism in Vietnam took no institutional form, in the sense that there were no Taoist schools.

In this manner, despite not having as prominent a presence as the other two major religions of Vietnam, Taoism is in a favorable position to spread as a popular religion. RQ: How does the Bayesian method of analysis help discover the additivity underlying in hundreds of tales whose core messages are categorized as Confucian, Buddhist, or Taoist?

The design of the study is summarized in Fig. The procedure of data collection and analysis in this study. The resulting dataset is cross-checked before being analyzed with the Bayesian method, which finally leads to the concept of cultural additivity.

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As shown in Fig. Then, choosing folktales as the raw materials for the study, variables are constructed to help datafy each story. During the process of data inputting, cross-checking among members of the team and random checks are carried out to ensure the validity of the data. This procedure is inspired by the data organization laid out in the data descriptors in Nature Research Vuong, a ; Vuong et al. Within the first months of , the study had collected lines of data as the results of reading and analyzing different stories from six major sources, as summarized in Table 3.

These collections are dated from the fourteenth century to sixteenth century, with some stories added as late as the eighteenth or nineteenth century. This was a period when the three religions of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism rivaled each other and exerted different degrees of influence in Vietnam Nguyen, , p. The collections of tales were likely recorded by Confucian scholars serving Vietnamese courts over the centuries. While this may look as though Taoism in Vietnam was not as influential, it is important to remember that, with its shamanic elements and ornate rituals and worshiping, Taoism was equally popular from to Xu, With this approach to Vietnamese folktales, the team members then analyzed the co-existence of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism, and the possible interaction among the three religions in influencing folk mentality.


The diagram in Fig. This fact is predicted through the appearance of the values and anti-values of said religion. The sons tried with all their strength to break the bundle but failed; then the father took out the bundle and broke the sticks one by one. His action illustrated the importance of uniting, that being united gives strength while being divided could hurt. The message is Confucian in essence for its emphasis on solidarity and harmony within the family. The story marks no other magical or religious intervention, and thus, falls under the first model of simple reflection with no additivity.

In this model, whether Confucianism dominates the key message of a story is predicted through the appearance of its values multiplied by the probability of appearance of the values and anti-values of other religions. Three models of cultural additivity of Confucianism a , b , c. The scroll represents Confucianism; the lotus represents Buddhism; the peach represents Taoism. The logic of Fig. As a general rule, each story corresponds to one line of data when the ending of a story is predominantly about one character or a group of similar characters.

However, a story may have more than one character with very different endings, entailing more than one line of data input. Given the presence of these elements, in our data master file, all columns indicating the values and anti-values of Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism were ticked 1. Table 4 describes how the folktales are coded. There can indeed be confusion in following the variables description.

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For example, certain values or anti-values can show up in two or all religions such as self-cultivation which can be a value of all three religions or cruelty of a husband toward his wife which can be either anti-Confucian or anti-Buddhist. This is to prevent the arbitrary coding. The logistic models work here because all variables are dichotomous and the data for response and predictor variables are discrete, enabling a prediction of the probability of each value of the dependent variable given specific values of the independent variables McElreath, The files were deposited with the open code principles at Open Science Framework.

Here is an example of the Stan codes:. The estimation had in total iterations, divided into 4 Markov chains, each containing warmup iterations.