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Because of this he was presented with a diamond which 5 The first Dacian war The inscription cited above reads : Comes expeditionis Dacicae, donis militaribus db eo Traiano donatus bis. The consuls of , in which year Hadrian was probably praetor, were Sura, for the third time, and Senecio, for the second time. The governor of the province under the control of the senate, on the other hand, had the title of proconsul.
In return for these services he was made consul. While he was holding this Indeed, after Sura's death Trajan's friendship for him in- creased, principally on account of the speeches which he composed for the Emperor. He enjoyed, too, the favour of Plotina, 5 and it was due to her interest in him that later, at the time of the campaign against Parthia, he was appointed the legate of the Emperor. Platorius Nepos was prominent under Trajan as a magistrate at Rome and the governor of several important provinces and was consul with Hadrian in He after- ward incurred Hadrian's enmity ; see c.
Claudius Livianus was prefect of the guard under Trajan and held a command in the first Dacian war; see Dio, Ixix. He was finally appointed prefect of the guard ; see c. Cornelius Palma and L. And when Palma and Celsus, 3 always his enemies, on whom he later took vengeance, fell under suspicion of aspiring to the throne, his adoption seemed assured ; and it was taken wholly for granted when, through Plotina's favour, he was appointed consul for the second time.
That he was bribing Trajan's freedmen and courting and corrupting his favourites all the while that he was in close attend- ance at court, was told and generally believed. On the fifth day before the Ides of August, while 9 Aug. On the third day before the Ides of August he received the news 11 Aug.
There was, to be sure, a widely prevailing belief that Trajan, with the approval of many of his friends, had planned to appoint as his successor not Hadrian but Neratius Priscus, 4 even to the extent of once saying to Priscus : " I entrust the provinces to your care in case anything happens to me ". And, indeed, many aver that Trajan had purposed to follow the example of Alexander of Macedonia and die without naming a successor. Again, many others declare that honour. Nothing is known of the suspicion alluded to here, but the two men, together with Nigrinus and Lusius Quietus, were later accused of a conspiracy against Hadrian and put to death ; see c.
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Neratius Priscus was a famous jurist and his works were used in the compilation of Justinian's Digest. He was a member of Trajan's imperial council, and later was one of Hadrian's advisers in legal questions ; see c. Adeptus imperium ad priscum se statim morem instituit et tenendae per orbem terrarum paci operam 2impendit. Petschenig, No- vak, and Lessing ; intendit P 1 , Peter. Ill, p. This policy had been abandoned by Trajan in his conquests of Dacia, Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria. Hadrian's new policy is proclaimed in the legends on his coins, luttdia Cohen, ii 2 , p.
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Alexandria, where the Jews were rioting, incited per- haps by the example of their fellow-countrymen in Palestine. On taking possession of the imperial power Hadrian at once resumed the policy of the early emperors.
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Whereupon he relinquished all the conquests east of the Euphrates and the Tigr.? Tanturn autem statim clementiae studium habuit ut, cum sub primis imperil diebus ab Attiano per epistolas esset admonitus, ut et Baebius Macer prae- fectus urbis, si reniteretur eius imperio. Lusium Quietum sublatis gentibus Mauris, quos regebat, quia suspectus imperio fuerat, exarmavit, Marcio Turbone ludaeis compressis ad deprimendum tumultum Mauretaniae destinato.
Parthian war ; he was rewarded by being made king after Trajan's victory in The Parthians deposed him, and Hadrian accordingly assigned to him, at least for a time, the district of C '. This letter was doubtless written after Attianns had returned to Rome with Trajan's I The prefect of the city was in command of the three cohorts which were responsible for the maintenance of order in Rome.
Nothing further is known of these " designs". Calpurnius Crassus Frugi conspired against Nerva and was banished to Tarentum. He was later brought to trial on the charge of conspiring against Trajan and was condemned Die, Lrriii. Later on. He i gave a double donative to the soldiers in order to ensure a favourable beginning to his principate.
He deprived Lusius Quietus of the command of the M: s tribesmen, who were serving under him, and then tfo- - missed him from the army, because he had fallen under the suspicion of having desijy. He had? H5: i..
Traiano di vinos honores datis ad senatum et qui- dem accuratissimis litteris postulavit et cunctis volenti- bus meruit, ita ut senatus multa, quae Hadrianus non postulaverat, iu honorem Traiani sponte decerneret. Catilius Severus was a friend and correspondent of Pliny; see Pliny, Epist. He became consul for the second time in , was proconsul of Asia, and in pre- fect of the city ; see c. He was the great-grand- father of Marcus Aurelius ; see Marc. His route lay across Asia Minor, and it was probably in this region that he received the news of the war threatened by the tribes north of the river ; cf.
He arrived in Moesia in the spring of , and finally reached Eome in July, ; cf. Despatching to the senate a carefully worded letter, he asked for divine honours for Trajan.
Later, when the senate offered him the triumph which was to have been Trajan's, he refused it for himself, and caused the effigy of the dead Emperor to be carried in a triumphal chariot, in order that the best of emperors might not lose even after death the honour of a triumph. In the case of the Julio-Claudian emperors after Tiberius who never held this title about a year was allowed to elapse before the honour was conferred.
Hadrian finally accepted it in ; see note to c. The precedent of a postponement was also followed by Pius Pius, vi. Marcium Turbonem post Mauretaniam l praefecturae infulis ornatum Pannoniae Daciaeque ad tempus praefecit. Nigrini insidias, quas ille sacrificanti Hadriano conscio sibi Lusio et multis aliis paraverat, cum etiam successorem Hadrianus sibimet destinasset, evasit.
Such contributions were originally voluntary, but soon became obligatory. Augustus had re- mitted them Mon. Partial remission is recorded in the cases of Pius Pius, iv.
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The Roxolani lived at the mouth of the Danube ; they had been constituted a vassal-state by Trajan. Then, on hearing of the incursions of the Sarma- tians and Roxolani, 2 he sent the troops ahead and set out for Moesia. He conferred the insignia of a prefect on Marcius Turbo after his Mauretanian cam- paign and appointed him to the temporary command of Pannonia and Dacia.
A plot to murder him while sacrificing was made by Nigrinus, with Lusius and a number of others as accomplices, even though Hadrian had destined 'Nigrinus 4 for the succession ; but Hadrian successfully evaded this plot. Because of this con- spiracy Pal ma was put to death at Tarracina, Celsus at Baiae, Nigrinus at Faventia, 5 and Lusius on his journey homeward, all by order of the senate, but contrary to the wish of Hadrian, as he says himself in his autobiography. Whereupon Hadrian entrusted who lived in the great plain between the Theiss and the Danube.
The only instance of an equestrian governor was the prefect of Egypt, the viceroy of the emperor who in theory was king of Egypt , and this appointment of a knight to govern the provinces on the Danube seemed to have a precedent in the prefecture of Egypt cf. Avidius Nigrinus, mentioned by Pliny in Epist. On the other conspir- ators see notes to c. II, , 1. Neither the later Julio- Claudian nor the Flavian emperors had recognized the right of a senator to trial by his fellow-senators only. Nerva, on the other hand, took an oath that he would not put a senator to death Dio, Ixviii.
For the practice of later em- perors see Marc.
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The department was under the direction of an official of equestrian rank, known as the praefectus vehicular urn. He then hastened to Rome in order to win over public opinion, which was hostile to him because of the belief that on one single occasion he had suffered four men of consular rank to be put to death.
In order to check the rumours about himself, he gave in person a double largess to the people, 1 although in his absence three aurei ' 2 had already been given to each of the citizens. In the senate, too, he cleared himself of blame for what had happened, and pledged himself never to in- flict punishment on a senator until after a vote of the senate.
Moreover, he used every means of gaining popularity. He remitted to private debtors in Rome and in Italy immense sums of money owed to the privy-purse, 5 and in the provinces he remitted large amounts of arrears ; and he ordered the promissory notes to be burned in the Forum of the Deified Trajan, 6 in order that the general sense of security might thereby be increased.
He gave orders that the property of condemned persons should not accrue to the privy- of , Cohen, ii 2 , p. It was surrounded by colonnades, portions of which are extant, and on its north-western side was the Basilica Ulpia ; north-west of this was the column of Trajan, flanked by two buildings containing the Bibliotheca Ulpia.
Optimos quosque de senatu in contubernium 2 imperatoriae maiestatis adscivit. The plan was made by Nerva but actually carried out by Trajan.
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For the purpose of the distribution of these grants Italy was divided into districts, often known by the name of the great roads which traversed them see Pert. He made additional appro- priations for the children to whom Trajan had allotted grants of money. Sums of money sufficient to enable men to hold office he bestowed, not on his friends alone, but also on many far and wide, and by his donations he helped a number of women to sustain life. He gave gladiatorial combats for six days in succession, and on his birthday he put into the arena a thousand wild beasts.
The foremost members of the senate he ad- mitted to close intimacy with the emperor's majesty. All circus-games decreed in his honour he refused, except those held to celebrate his birthday. Having himself been consul three times, he reappointed many to the consulship for the third time and men without number to a second term ; his own third consulship he held for only four months, and during his term he often administered justice.